Romans 11



Romans 11 addresses the temporary hardening of Israel, the inclusion of the Gentiles in God's plan, and the future restoration of Israel. Paul emphasizes the mystery of God's ways, the importance of humility, and the ultimate wisdom of God's redemptive plan.


  1. God's Rejection and Acceptance of Israel (Romans 11:1-10): Paul addresses the question of whether God has permanently rejected His people, Israel. He asserts that God has not rejected His people, citing the example of the remnant chosen by grace. Israel's stumbling has led to the salvation of the Gentiles, but it is not a permanent rejection.
  2. Inclusion of the Gentiles (Romans 11:11-24): Paul explains that Israel's stumbling and rejection opened the way for the Gentiles to be included in God's plan of salvation. He warns the Gentiles not to boast over Israel and emphasizes the possibility of Israel's future restoration. Using the metaphor of an olive tree, Paul illustrates how the Gentiles have been grafted in, and he encourages humility among the Gentiles.
  3. Israel's Future Restoration (Romans 11:25-36): Paul reveals a mystery: a partial hardening has come upon Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. Then, all Israel will be saved, as God's covenant promises will be fulfilled. Paul praises the depth of God's wisdom and knowledge, expressing awe at the richness of His plan. He concludes with a doxology, acknowledging God's sovereignty and wisdom.