Romans 9



Romans 9 addresses the complex relationship between God's sovereignty and human responsibility, focusing on God's choosing of His people and the importance of faith in Christ for salvation. Paul grapples with the tension between God's mercy and judgment in the context of Israel's response to the Gospel.


  1. Paul's Deep Sorrow (Romans 9:1-5): Paul expresses deep sorrow and anguish for the people of Israel, his fellow Jews, who have not accepted Christ. He highlights the privileges and blessings that Israel received, including the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the temple service, and the promises.

  2. God's Sovereign Choice (Romans 9:6-29): Paul addresses the question of God's sovereignty in choosing His people. He explains that not all physical descendants of Abraham are true children of God; rather, it is the children of the promise who are counted as offspring. Paul illustrates God's sovereign choice through the examples of Isaac and Ishmael, Jacob and Esau. He emphasizes that God's choice is not based on human works but on His mercy.

  3. God's Mercy and Judgment (Romans 9:30-33): Paul concludes the chapter by emphasizing that the Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness through the law, have attained righteousness by faith. Meanwhile, Israel, though pursuing the law, did not attain righteousness because they pursued it by works, not by faith. Paul quotes from Isaiah, highlighting that belief in Christ, the cornerstone, is the key to salvation, while stumbling over Christ leads to judgment.